Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789. The Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802, then taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for accurately determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant.
Global indexing system first developed for International Map of the World
Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements (thus the name and history of the United Kingdom's Ordnance Survey). As such, elevation information was of vital importance.
As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function which had been shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.
1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative endeavoring to map all of Earth's significant land areas at 1:1 million scale on about one thousand sheets covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude. Excluding boundaries, each sheet was 44 cm high and (depending on latitude) up to 66 cm wide. Although the project eventually foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use.
By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be eroded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents, coverage and scale. For example the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal, state and local political borders and census enumeration areas, and of roadways, railroads, and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was developed in the 1980s and used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models (DEM) were also compiled, initially from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and then from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and freely usable without fees or licensing.
Volgograd Arena (45,000 spectators): An emotional World Cup venue. On the bank of the Volga, the new stadium was built against the backdrop of the war memorial "Mother's Homeland Calls". During construction, bones were found by soldiers of the Second World War.
Group matches: Tunisia - England (June 18); Nigeria - Iceland (22 June); Saudi Arabia - Egypt (25 June); Japan - Poland (June 28)
Mordovia Arena (45,000 spectators): On the outskirts of Saransk, the new building was launched in 2010, the 1000th anniversary of the unification of the Mordovian and Russian population. After the World Cup there will be a dismantling for tennis and volleyball fields.
Group matches: Peru - Denmark (16 June); Colombia - Japan (19 June); Iran - Portugal (25 June); Panama - Tunisia (June 28)
Samara Arena (45,000 spectators): The ambitious construction project in the forest just outside the city lagged behind the schedule for a long time.
Group matches: Costa Rica - Serbia (17 June); Denmark - Australia (21 June); Uruguay - Russia (25 June); Senegal - Colombia (June 28)
A knockout round, a quarter-finals | Source: REUTERS
Rostov on the Don-Arena (45,000 spectators): Right on the banks of the Don is the new arena. The roof of the new building should symbolize the course of the river. FK Rostov, who beat the Bavarians in the Champions League, is playing here after the World Cup.
Group matches: Brazil - Switzerland (17 June); Uruguay - Saudi Arabia (June 20); South Korea - Mexico (23 June); Iceland - Croatia (June 26th)
A knockout round | Source: REUTERS