The United States Geological Survey (USGS), a civilian Federal agency, produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest (both in terms of scale and quantity) and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute or 1:24,000 quadrangle. This scale is virtually unique to the United States and offers a convenient relation to customary units of measure where 1 map inch equals 2,000 actual feet. USGS also publishes 1:25,000 maps for metric uses, 1:100,000 maps covering 30 minutes latitude by one degree longitude, 1:250,000 covering one by two degrees, and state maps at 1:500,000 with California, Michigan and Montana needing two sheets while Texas has four. Alaska is mapped on a single sheet, at scales ranging from 1:1,584,000 to 1:12,000,000.
The Centre for Topographic Information produces topographic maps of Canada at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. They are known as the National Topographic System (NTS). A government proposal to discontinue publishing of all hardcopy or paper topographic maps in favor of digital-only mapping data was shelved in 2006 after intense public opposition.
Volgograd Arena (45,000 spectators): An emotional World Cup venue. On the bank of the Volga, the new stadium was built against the backdrop of the war memorial "Mother's Homeland Calls". During construction, bones were found by soldiers of the Second World War.
Group matches: Tunisia - England (June 18); Nigeria - Iceland (22 June); Saudi Arabia - Egypt (25 June); Japan - Poland (June 28)
Mordovia Arena (45,000 spectators): On the outskirts of Saransk, the new building was launched in 2010, the 1000th anniversary of the unification of the Mordovian and Russian population. After the World Cup there will be a dismantling for tennis and volleyball fields.
Group matches: Peru - Denmark (16 June); Colombia - Japan (19 June); Iran - Portugal (25 June); Panama - Tunisia (June 28)
Samara Arena (45,000 spectators): The ambitious construction project in the forest just outside the city lagged behind the schedule for a long time.
Group matches: Costa Rica - Serbia (17 June); Denmark - Australia (21 June); Uruguay - Russia (25 June); Senegal - Colombia (June 28)
A knockout round, a quarter-finals | Source: REUTERS
Rostov on the Don-Arena (45,000 spectators): Right on the banks of the Don is the new arena. The roof of the new building should symbolize the course of the river. FK Rostov, who beat the Bavarians in the Champions League, is playing here after the World Cup.
Group matches: Brazil - Switzerland (17 June); Uruguay - Saudi Arabia (June 20); South Korea - Mexico (23 June); Iceland - Croatia (June 26th)
A knockout round | Source: REUTERS