A triangulated irregular network (TIN) is a digital data structure used in a geographic information system (GIS) for the representation of a surface. A TIN is a vector-based representation of the physical land surface or sea bottom, made up of irregularly distributed nodes and lines with three-dimensional coordinates (x, y, and z) that are arranged in a network of nonoverlapping triangles. TINs are often derived from the elevation data of a rasterized digital elevation model (DEM). An advantage of using a TIN over a raster DEM in mapping and analysis is that the points of a TIN are distributed variably based on an algorithm that determines which points are most necessary to an accurate representation of the terrain. Data input is therefore flexible and fewer points need to be stored than in a raster DEM, with regularly distributed points. A TIN may be less suited than a raster DEM for certain kinds of GIS applications, such as analysis of a surface's slope and aspect.
Volgograd Arena (45,000 spectators): An emotional World Cup venue. On the bank of the Volga, the new stadium was built against the backdrop of the war memorial "Mother's Homeland Calls". During construction, bones were found by soldiers of the Second World War.
Group matches: Tunisia - England (June 18); Nigeria - Iceland (22 June); Saudi Arabia - Egypt (25 June); Japan - Poland (June 28)
Mordovia Arena (45,000 spectators): On the outskirts of Saransk, the new building was launched in 2010, the 1000th anniversary of the unification of the Mordovian and Russian population. After the World Cup there will be a dismantling for tennis and volleyball fields.
Group matches: Peru - Denmark (16 June); Colombia - Japan (19 June); Iran - Portugal (25 June); Panama - Tunisia (June 28)
Samara Arena (45,000 spectators): The ambitious construction project in the forest just outside the city lagged behind the schedule for a long time.
Group matches: Costa Rica - Serbia (17 June); Denmark - Australia (21 June); Uruguay - Russia (25 June); Senegal - Colombia (June 28)
A knockout round, a quarter-finals | Source: REUTERS
Rostov on the Don-Arena (45,000 spectators): Right on the banks of the Don is the new arena. The roof of the new building should symbolize the course of the river. FK Rostov, who beat the Bavarians in the Champions League, is playing here after the World Cup.
Group matches: Brazil - Switzerland (17 June); Uruguay - Saudi Arabia (June 20); South Korea - Mexico (23 June); Iceland - Croatia (June 26th)
A knockout round | Source: REUTERS